11 December, 2023

President Macron: Why did France block Europe's Charter of Liberty? I await answers to my letter.

  to signatory Governments to become Law! WHY?

Below is my letter sent to President Emmanuel Macron about an extraordinary French failure in international law. France failed to respect its obligations that would have guaranteed European citizens their rightful Fundamental Freedoms over past decades.

The effective Rule of Law inside and outside the European Institutions requires that this signed treaty text be transmitted to Governments. It needs to be put into national legislation by all Member States on behalf of their citizens’ rights.

This missing text sets out the framework and operation of the Rule of Law in all future treaties and joint action.

Original Misdeed

France sent an incomplete copy of Europe’s founding treaty to Member States. The missing text should have been made national law in all Member States. Freedom of Choice and open democracy would thus have become a much stronger foundation of Europe and strengthened national democracies.

The treaty itself specifies that all sections signed by plenipotentiary ministers should be transmitted together to Member States. Then Governments turn the whole treaty into national law.

Other sections of Europe’s founding treaty were made law. They founded Europe’s five key institutions: the Parliament, the European Commission with its tripartite Consultative Committee, the Council of Ministers and the Court of Justice of the Community. But the key document on citizens’ freedom and rights to appeal measures inside the institutions was not sent to the governments.

Robert Schuman, the initiator of the European Community, wrote that when a bureaucracy becomes inflexible it poses the greatest threat to democracy. The text that the French Government did not send to its partner governments details how citizens and associations, and even States, can appeal unjust operations to the Court of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Strasbourg. It defines the relationship between the Council of Europe and the European Community and the present European Union.

Ratification blocked

This treaty text defines democratic control not only for Europe’s first Community but all subsequent treaties. All actions, additions and subtractions to treaties, the conduct of the bureaucracy, taxes and budgets have to have the full acquiescence of the European public in an open democracy.

The signed Treaty is clear. The process of ratification and national legislation too. All the sections of the first European Community treaty were to be assembled in a single text. A certified authentic copy was to be sent to all signatory Member States. They weren’t.

Instead the most important document was hidden away in the archives of the French Foreign Ministry. Was it sent to an oubliette to be destroyed by neglect? No action was taken to send separately the ‘forgotten’ or ‘overlooked’ document signed by plenipotentiary foreign ministers like Adenauer, Schuman, Sforza, Bech, van Zeeland, and Stikker plus ministers of commerce.

Until 2022!

The French Foreign Ministry were aware of its existence again in 2012. They pulled it out of the archives at the request of the Schuman Project. But no legal or diplomatic action was taken.

M. Schuman had read out each word of the Charter text on 18 April 1951 in the salon de l’horloge of the Quai d’Orsay. The ministers signed their agreement to it.

The typescript, however, was never set in special treaty typeface, like other sections. Nor was it printed on the special paper like other parts of the treaty.

The ‘official’ copy of the European Community treaty included the revolutionary Single European Market, the anti-cartel powers, protocols or the technical annexes on special steels, recycling, designation of coal qualities… and the privileges of officials.

And the citizens? The treaty text that described democratic guarantees and the future organic development of national and supranational democracy and safeguards against technocratic abuse … nowhere to be seen! An accident? Purposeful neglect? Who knows?

If it was ‘merely’ negligence than it is an error of gigantic proportions that has cost billions of euros in inefficiencies and actions that must be considered corrupt as they lack a real democratic base.

A treaty like no other

The supranational Community is like no other constitutional system in the world. Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, assured ministers that the treaty’s certified copy that the governments would receive would be special — like no other in the world.

Abject Failure

One of the most important documents — perhaps the most import document of all — was never sent to the member Governments. In it Governments acknowledge how citizens would have full rights in overseeing the normal working and changes in the Community. Any abuse, tax, budget, political abuse, unnecessary secrecy, undemocratic procedures inside the institutions could be appealed to the High Court of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Strasbourg.

By not transmitting this text to Member States the European Institutions and the EU have not been under control of normal Human Rights legislation. This has led to widespread abuse — the Democratic Deficit — a glaring gap in the Community process that was set up to be a model democracy for Europeans.

Path to Pariah Status

Europe’s oldest democracies shun any idea of joining the EU. The United Kingdom with its Magna Carta that made it the mother of democracies around the world has left. This Great Charter like the Community Charter spelt out that a healthy society must be built on personal and associative freedoms. Brexit should be a red warning light and siren of worse danger to come. All remaining Member States of the EU should awaken to immediate action.

For example, the choice of the president of the European Commission is massively distorted. The President is supposed to be a model of impartiality. The States were supposed to openly nominate candidates who all Europe knew to be independent and impartial. The public could then give reasons for support or to deny them the office according to the criteria in the treaty. That has changed radically.

Instead of being non-partisan, the presidents are now being chosen exclusively from a small group of partisans, that is, active politicians —a group that has lost the general trust of the public. Some then seek multimillion fortunes on Wall Street or with Pharmaceutical combines.

Trust? The names of the Commission President and even the President of the European Parliament are shamelessly chosen in secret by other politicians in horse-trading inside the European Council, itself meeting in secret, contrary to the explicit articles of the treaties.

Democratic Deficit

The following were original features of the European Community legislation. This contrasts with the present system. The Democratic Deficit has its origin in the treaty failure of the French Foreign Ministry.

What judge would countenance the present configuration of closed door Councils, lack of democratic equality, massive debts, overrun budget that no citizen agreed to, and multiple presidents of institutions that are decided in secret cabal? No judge… except one from North Korea or Communist China!

  • The Council of Ministers should be fully open as much as the Parliament.

  • Parliament should be elected on the basis of one person one vote, not as at present.

  • Consultative Committees of European associations with powers to influence legislation should be elected on a European basis;

  • The European Commission should be elected by a method that ensures it has public support, and is trusted because it is fully impartial;

  • The Court should be under democratic control so that it does become selected on the basis of national bias.

  • The budget should be balanced annually. No Taxes without open public assent.

Lacking the obvious democratic controls of the Charter, the European institutions have created distortions that have led some democratic countries like Norway, Iceland and Switzerland refusing to join. Others like the United Kingdom have left. Brexit is an open admission of democratic failure of the institutions and lack of public trust. Who wants to join? States with dubious histories wanting hand-outs.

Is that the future?


Translated Text of Letter sent to President Emmanuel Macron

Mr President of the Republic,

I would be grateful if you could help me resolve a political and diplomatic anomaly of great importance for European citizens and the history of Europe. I am a historian, author of books on Robert Schuman, editor of the Schuman Project, and accredited journalist within the EU in Brussels.

In its article 100 the ECSC treaty stipulates that the original documents of the Treaty,

'edited in a single copy, it will be deposited in the archives of the Government of the French Republic, which will send a certified copy to each of the signatory states.'

My research in the archives shows that in 1951 the Quai d'Orsay failed to send to the signatory States of the ECSC the authenticated copies of one of the key documents, the treaty text of which was signed by all the plenipotentiary ministers on 18 April 1951.

This text is of capital importance for the future of Europe. It is entitled Joint Declaration of Ministers representing the Signatory Governments of the Treaty.

It addresses

* countries that have freedom of choice 'pays libres de leur choix,' (that is, member countries of the Council of Europe)

* the rights of 'millions of European inhabitants' in 'a larger and more profound community',

* Liaison and coordination of all European institutions with the Council of Europe and the Convention on Human Rights.

Robert Schuman called it the Charter of the Community ("la Charte de la Communauté") in his book, 'Pour l'Europe'. He explains its mechanism in the preface of the book on the Coal and Steel Community (CECA) by jurisconsult at the Foreign Ministry, Paul Reuter.

In July 1950, at the beginning of the conference on the ECSC treaty, Schuman described to the national delegations the legal principles that should relate the Community to the Council of Europe. All delegations signed this joint declaration on 18 April 1951.

Schuman wrote that the Charter

* would encourage and stimulate direct universal suffrage,

* the democratic and ethical development of institutions, and

* thus bring to all ‘a consciousness of European unity … that would become ever more sturdy.'

The full text of the Charter was published in the newspapers of the time and in books. (I have sent some examples in the attachments {to the Foreign Ministry}, as well as a photograph of the authentic copy of the Treaty with its Protocols, Convention and annexes).

French Mission Failure

Unfortunately, certified copies of the Declaration / Charter were not sent to the signatory governments. Therefore, the Member States have not been able to transpose the Charter, signed by their minister and other plenipotentiaries, into their national legislations. This omission on the part of the Quai has had serious consequences on the process of national ratification and relations with the Council of Europe.

In 2012, I spoke to M. Bernard Cazeneuve, Minister Delegate for Foreign Affairs at the time. The MAE service found the document in the archives and sent me a copy that I published on my site schuman.info. The absence of this key document was notified to the Belgian government who, in turn, verified that the text was not in their certified copy of the treaty sent by the MAE of Paris.

So the Belgian government recently sent a request for a certified copy and received it from the Ministry.

I have now received a certified copy of this important text of the treaty from the Belgian authorities.

In March this year I wrote to the diplomatic archives of Courneuve with some questions, but I did not receive a reply. Since then, I have written several times to the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs {ministers and its press section}. I have not received an acknowledgement of receipt.

The French Embassy in Brussels was kind enough to transmit a copy of my letter to the Quai. I still have not received an acknowledgement or a reply.

This is why, Monsieur le Président, I have deemed it necessary to address you about the issue.

Would you be kind enough to let me know:

1. How many other Member States have not received this Joint Declaration of the Treaty, signed by their ministers.

2. Are the French authorities planning to send certified copies to all those States that have not received the Charter?

3. What do the French authorities propose for the other ECSC member states? The Charter deals with the principles of law and the obligations of the institutions and the States in relation to the new Communities after and beyond the ECSC (for example the EEC and Euratom).

4. For what reason did the ministry not transmit this text to the other signatory States in accordance with article 100? Are there documents that would throw light on this failure? If Yes, could you send me copies?

I would like to add that the legal recognition of the Community Charter could resolve a long-standing problem. This is the obligation, imposed by the Treaty of Lisbon (TEU article 6, and protocol 8), for the EU to adhere to the Convention on Human Rights of the Council of Europe. This legal framework for the 'countries of peoples exercising free choice' was manifestly the intention of Schuman and the founding fathers, and what the public expected as safeguards when European unity was first being formulated by the European Community.

The Council of Europe in the framework of its statutory means, wrote Schuman, 'renders and continue to render real services: it is a beacon that illuminates the route of Europe.'

May I express my gratitude to you, Monsieur le Président de la République,

Yours sincerely,

David Price

Schuman Project


Original French text follows.

David Heilbron Price
Editor, Schuman Project
                                                                                           le 8 décembre 2023
Charte de la Communauté européenne.

Monsieur le Président de la République,
Je vous serais reconnaissant si vous pourriez m'aider à résoudre une anomalie politique et diplomatique d'une grande importance pour les citoyens européens et l'histoire de l'Europe. Je suis historien, auteur de livres sur Robert Schuman, éditeur du Projet Schuman, et journaliste accrédité au sein de la UE à Bruxelles.

Le Traité de Paris CECA (Communauté du Charbon et de l'Acier) dans son article 100 stipule que les documents originaux du Traité,

'rédigé en un seul exemplaire, sera déposé aux archives du Gouvernement de la République Française, qui remettra une copie conforme certifiée à chacun des gouvernements des Etats signataires.'

Mes recherches aux archives ont montré qu'en 1951 le Quai d'Orsay n'avait pas envoyé aux Etats signataires de la CECA de copies authentifiées d'un des documents clé, dont le texte (traité) a été signé par tous les ministres plénipotentiaires le 18 avril 1951.

Ce texte d'une importance capitale pour l'avenir de l'Europe s'intitulait Déclaration commune des Ministres représentant les Gouvernements signataires du Traité.

Il s'adresse

  • aux 'pays libres de leur choix,' (c'est à dire, pays membres du Conseil de l'Europe)

  • aux 'millions d'habitants européens,' et leurs droits dans 'une communauté plus large et plus profonde',

  • à la liaison et à la coordination des institutions européennes avec le Conseil de l'Europe et sa Convention des Droits de l'Homme.   

Robert Schuman l'appelait la "Charte de la Communauté" dans son livre, 'Pour l'Europe'. Il expliqua son mécanisme dans la préface du livre sur la CECA du jurisconsulte au Quai, Paul Reuter. En juillet 1950, au début de la conférence sur le traité CECA, Schuman décrit aux délégations nationales les principes juridiques qui devraient relier la Communauté au Conseil de l'Europe. Toutes les délégations ont signé cette Déclaration commune le 18 avril 1951.

Schuman écrit que la Charte
* encouragerait et stimulerait le suffrage universel direct,
* le développement démocratique et éthique des institutions, et
* mettrait ainsi en évidence 'une conscience d'une unité européenne ...qui prendrait davantage corps.'

Le texte intégral de la Charte fut publié dans les journaux de l'époque et dans des livres. (J'en ai envoyé quelques exemples dans les attachements, ainsi qu'une photographie de la copie conforme du Traité avec ses Protocoles, Convention et annexes).

Malheureusement, des copies certifiées conformes de la Déclaration / Charte n'ont pas été envoyées aux gouvernements signataires. Par conséquent, les États membres n'ont pas été en mesure de transposer la Charte, signée par leur ministre et d'autres plénipotentiaires, dans leurs législations nationales.

Cette omission de la part du Quai a donc eu de graves conséquences sur le processus de ratification nationale et les relations avec le Conseil de l'Europe.

En 2012 j'en ai parlé à M. Bernard Cazeneuve le Ministre délégué aux Affaires étrangères à l'époque. Le service du MAE a trouvé le document dans les archives et m'a envoyé une copie que j'ai publiée sur mon site schuman.info.

L'absence de ce document clé a été notifiée au gouvernement belge qui, en suite, a vérifié que le texte n'était pas dans leur copie certifiée conforme du traité envoyée par le MAE de Paris.

Ainsi le gouvernement belge a récemment envoyé une demande de copie certifiée conforme et l'a reçu de la part du Ministère.

J'ai maintenant reçu une copie conforme de cet important texte du traité de la part des autorités belges.

En mars j'ai écrit aux archives diplomatiques de Courneuve avec quelques questions, mais je n'ai pas reçu une réponse.

Depuis, j’ai écrit à plusieurs reprises au ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes. Je n'ai pas reçu d'accusé de réception. L'Ambassade de France à Bruxelles a eu la gentillesse d'en transmettre également une copie de ma lettre au Quai. Je n'ai toujours pas d'accusé de réception ni de réponse.

C'est pourquoi, Monsieur le Président, je me permets de vous adresser.

Auriez-vous l'amabilité de me le faire savoir :
1. Combien d'autres États membres n'ont-ils pas reçu cette Declaration commune du traité, signée par leurs ministres.
2. Les autorités françaises envisagent-elles d'envoyer des copies certifiées conformes à tous ces États qui n'ont pas reçu la Charte?
3. Que proposent les autorités françaises pour les autres États membres ultérieurs de la CECA? La Charte traite des principes de Droit et des obligations des institutions et des États à l'égard des nouvelles Communautés après et au-delà de la CECA (par exemple la CEE et l'Euratom).
4. Pour quelle raison le Quai d'Orsay n’a-t-il pas pensé à adresser ce texte aux autres Etats concernés, conformément à l’article 100 CECA? Y a-t-il des documents et de la correspondance concernant cette défaillance? Si oui, pourriez-vous m'envoyer des copies?

Je voudrais ajouter que la reconnaissance juridique de la Charte de la Communauté pourrait résoudre un problème de longue date. Il s'agit de l'obligation, imposée par le Traité de Lisbonne (TUE article 6, et le protocole 8), pour l'UE d'adhérer à la Convention des Droits de l'Homme du Conseil de l'Europe. Cet encadrement legal pour les 'pays libres de leur choix' était manifestement l'intention de Schuman et des pères fondateurs, et ce que le public attendait au début de l'unité européenne faite par la Communauté.

Le Conseil de l'Europe dans le cadre de ses moyens statuaires, écrit Schuman, 'à rendu et continue à rendre de réels services: c'est un phare qui éclaire la route de l'Europe.'

Un grand merci à vous, Monsieur le Président de la République,

David Price

Schuman Project